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 ANZ eGlossary


Select the first letter of the word from the list above to jump to appropriate section of the glossary.


Application Programming Interface; a language and message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or some other system or control program.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Asynchronous Transfer Mode; technology that permits the sharing of transmission facilities between different data types (i.e. voice, data and video by carrying the data in small fixed-sized cells).

There are two types of online auctions: commercial and person-to-person. At a commercial auction venue, buyers compete with one another to purchase goods, which are stocked in clearance warehouses. These items might be unused or they may be discontinued, refurbished, used or customer returns. At a person-to-person auction site, sellers and bidders meet in the middle ground. Sellers pay a fee to list items for sale. After the bidding, the auctioneer notifies the winning bidder and the seller, who makes arrangements to complete the transaction privately.

Method of ensuring that the party accessing a computer system is actually the party they are claiming to be.


The amount of data that can be transmitted over a circuit or network measured in bits per second.

Advertisement on a web page that is usually ‘hot-linked’ to the advertiser’s site.

Bar code
Printed bars and spaces that represent alphanumeric characters, enabling data to be captured automatically into computer systems.

Any transmission system that combines multiple signals on one single circuit (i.e. cable that can support video, voice and text simultaneously).

Program that locates and displays HTML documents (e.g. Internet Explorer, Netscape, Mosaic, Opera).

Browser catching
To speed surf, browsers store recently used pages on a user’s disk. If a site is revisited, browsers display pages from the disk instead of requesting them from the server. As a result, servers under-count the number of times a page is viewed.

Business-to-business; transactions between organisations, where the current action (and revenue) is in the world of e-Commerce.

Business-to-consumer; transactions between organisations and individual consumers.

Bulletin board
Computer system providing subscribers with news and information on particular topics, and usually allows posting of public and private messages by subscribers.

Business process re-engineering
Re-shaping of an organisation based on its key processes rather than its traditional functions. The tools of e-Commerce enable considerable flexibility in re-shaping structure and processes.


Chip card
A chip card is a normal credit card which has a microchip embedded in it. It works in the same way as a magnetic stripe card but the chip memory has the added advantage of allowing the card to store data such as the card number, cardholder name and card expiry date. Eventually, the chip will replace the magnetic stripe altogether, as it is more secure and difficult to counterfeit. The chip also allows ANZ to offer you additional benefits such as ANZ eVouchers. In the future, we can offer you more benefits using the chip functionality.

Chip card reader
A chip card reader is a device that connects to a PC and reads the information stored on a chip card. No information is stored on a chip card reader. Chip cardholders can choose to use the chip card reader when shopping online at Verified by Visa merchants. The chip card reader is used to confirm the details on the chip card when a purchase is made.

Refers to the ‘moving together’ of the various communications, information and entertainment industries to a common interactive broadband media.

Small files that are automatically downloaded from a web server to the computer of someone browsing a website. Information stored in cookies can then be accessed any time that computer returns to the site. Cookies allow websites to ‘personalise’ their appearance by identifying visitors, storing passwords, tracking preferences and other possibilities.

Critical mass
Technology derives its value from the extent to which its use is universal among potential users. Critical mass is the point when the number of users of the technology is such that its use is considered to be ‘universal’.

Term used to describe all computers and forms of electronic communication as an environment that users can enter and experience (e.g. over the Internet).


Digital cash Funds held in an online account, which can be electronically transferred between two parties.

Digital signature Method of ensuring that a message was actually sent by the person claiming to send it.

Direct procurement Also known as strategic procurement. Purchases for use as inputs into a company’s finished products (e.g. for a confectionary manufacturer all ingredients purchased for use in producing confectionary are direct materials).


Electronic Data Interchange; the electronic communication of business transactions, such as orders, confirmations and invoices, between organisations.

Electronic Data Interchange for Administration Trade and Transport; UN-sponsored global EDI standards.

Electronic form displayed on a computer screen for completion by the user.

Electronic Funds Transfer; the electronic transfer of funds between bank accounts of business partners.

Electronic purse
Smartcard with stored value that can be ‘loaded’ with digital cash at banks or from ‘electronic wallets’, and spent using point-of-sale devices.

Disguising of a message to obscure its meaning.

Purchasing of goods online.

Contract or other written agreement deposited with a third person for delivery to a given party on the fulfilment of some condition.

An ANZ eVoucher is an instant discount, gift or special offer stored on a chip card such as ANZ First or ANZ Gold. ANZ eVouchers are only available to primary cardholders.

When a company throws open its internal networks or Intranet to selected business partners, the Intranet becomes an Extranet. Suppliers, distributors and other authorised users can then connect to the company’s network over the Internet or through private networks. Once inside they can view data the company makes available.


Frequently Asked Questions; relating to a specific topic with answers.

Computer system, router or pair of routers between the Internet and a private network to prevent unauthorised users from accessing the private network.

File Transfer Protocol; an Internet tool allowing users to transfer files from remote hosts to their computer.


Maintaining a computer system and its applications at a third-party site.

Hypertext Markup Language; document language used for creating WWW pages.

Hybrid systems
Combination of systems, such as a CD-ROM, which provide a link to the Internet.

Links to other sections of the same document or to other documents over the WWW.


Indirect procurement
Also known as non-strategic procurement. Items that do not form part of producing a company’s finished products (e.g. all machinery maintenance requirements purchased are not present in the finished product and are therefore indirect requirements).

Ability to integrate products from different vendors into functional systems without developing custom software, hardware or tools, and without using gateways between the products.

Internet Protocol; implements the network layer (layer 3) of the protocol, which contains a network address and is used to route a message to a different network or subnetwork. Plus, accepts ‘packets’ from the layer 4 transport protocol (TCP or UDP), adds its own header to it and delivers a ‘datagram’ to the layer 2 data link protocol.

Internet Service Provider; provides connection to the Internet.


Programming language frequently used on websites. Some Java programs or ‘applets’ are downloaded from the web server to the visitor’s own computer, which then runs them. This distinguishes Java programs from other web programming languages, such as PERL, that reside and run on the web server (only the results are downloaded to the visitor’s computer).


Local Area Network; a communications network that serves users within a confined geographical area, and is made up of servers, workstations, a network operating system and a communications link.


Online trading environment that brings together buyers and sellers.

Maintenance, repair and operations; maintenance and repairs are the core products required for manufacturing (i.e. nuts, bolts and bearings), while operations relate to the ancillary requirements of a business (day-to-day office consumables, travel and stationery).


Assurance to either party in an electronic transaction that the other cannot later deny having agreed to the transaction. The assurance is provided by means of a digital signature.


Usually used as a marketing term to describe a website that is, or is intended to be, the first place people see when using the web. Typically, a ‘portal site’ has a catalogue of websites, a search engine or both. A portal site may also offer e-mail and other services to entice people to use that site as their main ‘point of entry’.

Public Switched Telephone Network; the worldwide voice telephone network.


Reverse auction
Web-based international trade matchmaking system that allows purchases and global importers/buyers to buy or source products with minimum costs.

Request for Proposal; a document that invites a vendor to submit a bid for hardware, software and/or services.

Request for Quotation; see RFP.


Computer or software program that provides services to clients over a network on request.

Credit card-sized device implanted with either computer memory chips or computer processors.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol; the worldwide de facto electronic messaging standard. While it facilitates mail between the Internet and other networks, it is limited to ASCII characters.

Spot market
Market in which commodities are bought and sold for cash, and delivered immediately.


TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; a de facto UNIX standard that is the protocol of the Internet, and has become the global standard for communications.

Telnet Standard Internet terminal emulation protocol that permits clients to log on to remote computers.

Trading partner Any company or organisation that regularly transacts business.


User Datagram Protocol; a protocol within the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used in place of TCP when a reliable delivery is not required.

Universal Product Code; a numeric code for retail goods that can identify a particular product. It contains a six-digit code to identify the manufacturer and a six-digit code assigned by the manufacturer to uniquely identify the product.

Uniform Resource Locator; a standardised method of identifying any document or resource on the Internet.


Value-Added Network; a packet switched network that offers special services, such as protocol conversion and data store and forward.

Verified by Visa
Verified by Visa offers more protection against the unauthorised use of a chip card. ANZ and Verified by Visa merchants require a password to be used with the chip card when shopping online, thereby providing more protection against unauthorised chip card use.

Vertical portal used for vertical markets.


A communications network that covers a wide geographic area, such as state or country.

Web page
Text and graphics sent to a web browser by a web server, which may or may not fill more than one computer screen, but all of which can be viewed by scrolling.

Web server
Server supporting one or more websites, and which supplies web pages to web browsers on request.

Web site
One or more interlinked web pages controlled by a single organisation and linked to a single homepage.

World Wide Web; a set of Internet servers that provide hypertext services to clients running WWW browsers.


Extensible Markup Language; a metalanguage containing a set of rules for construction of other markup languages. With XML, people can make up their own tags, which expands the amount and kinds of information that can be provided about the data held in the document. XML enables designers to create their own customised tags to provide functions not available with HTML.